The United Arab Emirates (UAE; Arabic: الإمارات العربية المتحدة al-ʾImārāt al-ʿArabīyyah al-Muttaḥidah), generally merely known as the Emirates (Arabic: الإمارات al-ʾImārāt), is a rustic in Western Asia on the northeast finish of the Arabian Peninsula on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman to the east and Saudi Arabia to the south and west, in addition to sharing maritime borders with Qatar to the west and Iran to the north. The sovereign constitutional monarchy is a federation of seven emirates consisting of Abu Dhabi (which serves because the capital), Ajman, Dubai, Fujairah, Ras Al Khaimah, Sharjah and Umm Al Quwain. Their boundaries are complicated, with quite a few enclaves inside the varied emirates. Every emirate is ruled by a ruler; collectively, they collectively type the Federal Supreme Council. One of many rulers serves because the President of the United Arab Emirates. In 2013, the UAE's inhabitants was 9.2 million, of which 1.four million are Emirati residents and seven.eight million are expatriates.
Human occupation of the current UAE has been traced again to the emergence of anatomically fashionable people from Africa some 125,000 BCE by finds on the Faya-1 website in Mleiha, Sharjah. Burial websites courting again to the Neolithic Age and the Bronze Age embody the oldest identified such inland website at Jebel Buhais. Generally known as Magan to the Sumerians, the world was residence to a affluent Bronze Age buying and selling tradition throughout the Umm Al Nar interval, which traded between the Indus Valley, Bahrain and Mesopotamia in addition to Iran, Bactria and the Levant. The following Wadi Suq interval and three Iron Ages noticed the emergence of nomadism in addition to the event of water administration and irrigation methods supporting human settlement in each the coast and inside. The Islamic age of the UAE dates again to the expulsion of the Sasanians and the following Battle of Dibba. The UAE's lengthy historical past of commerce led to the emergence of Julfar, within the present-day emirate of Ras Al Khaimah, as a significant regional buying and selling and maritime hub within the space. The maritime dominance of the Persian Gulf by Emirati merchants led to conflicts with European powers, together with the Portuguese and British.
Following a long time of maritime battle, the coastal emirates grew to become referred to as the Trucial States with the signing of a Perpetual Treaty of Maritime Peace with the British in 1819 (ratified in 1853 and once more in 1892), which established the Trucial States as a British Protectorate. This association ended with independence and the institution of the United Arab Emirates on 2 December 1971, instantly following the British withdrawal from its treaty obligations. Six emirates joined the UAE in 1971, the seventh, Ras Al Khaimah, joined the federation on 10 February 1972.
Islam is the official faith and Arabic is the official language of the UAE. The UAE's oil reserves are the seventh-largest on this planet whereas its pure gasoline reserves are the world's seventeenth-largest. Sheikh Zayed, ruler of Abu Dhabi and the primary President of the UAE, oversaw the event of the Emirates and steered oil revenues into healthcare, schooling and infrastructure. The UAE's economic system is essentially the most diversified within the Gulf Cooperation Council, whereas its most populous metropolis of Dubai is a vital world metropolis and worldwide aviation and maritime commerce hub. Consequently, the nation is way much less reliant on oil and gasoline than in earlier years and is economically specializing in tourism and enterprise. The UAE authorities doesn't levy earnings tax though there's a system of company tax in place and worth added tax was established in 2018 at 5%.
The UAE's rising worldwide profile has led to it being recognised as a regional and a center energy. It's a member of the United Nations, the Arab League, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, OPEC, the Non-Aligned Motion and the Gulf Cooperation Council.