Abraham Lincoln (Hodgenville, Kentucky, February 12, 1809-Washington DC, April 15, 1865) was an American politician and lawyer who served as the sixteenth president of the United States of America from March 4, 1861 until his assassination on April 15, 1865. Lincoln led the United States during the Civil War, the bloodiest conflict and perhaps also the greatest moral, constitutional and political crisis the American nation has suffered. At the same time, it preserved the Union, abolished slavery, strengthened the federal government and modernized the economy.
Born in Hodgenville, Kentucky, Lincoln grew up between the states of Kentucky and Indiana, in what was then the Far West. He was a largely self-taught man who became a lawyer in Illinois, leader of the Whig Party and was elected to the Illinois House of Representatives, in which he remained eight years. Elected to the House of Representatives of the United States in 1846, Lincoln promoted a rapid modernization of the economy through sectors such as banking, taxes and railroads. Because he had initially agreed not to opt for a second term in Congress and because his opposition to US intervention in Mexico was unpopular among Illinois voters, Lincoln returned to Springfield to resume his career in law. He returned to politics in 1854 and became the leader of the construction of the new Republican Party, which had a large mass of voters in Illinois. In 1858, while participating in several very popular debates with his rival, Democrat Stephen A. Douglas, Lincoln advocated the abolition of slavery, but lost the race to access the Senate.
In 1860 Lincoln secured his candidacy for the presidency of the United States by the Republican Party. Although he barely had support from the southern states, defenders of slavery, swept through the north and was appointed president in 1860. Before even arriving at the White House, his victory and lack of agreement on the essential issue of slavery caused that seven southern states split to create the Confederate States of America. Then, on April 12, 1861, a Confederate attack on Fort Sumter, inspired the northern states to unite to form the Union. As leader of the moderate faction of the Republicans, Lincoln faced the most radical wing of his party, which demanded greater harshness against the southern states, the anti-war Democrats, who despised him, already irreconcilable secessionists, who conspired To kill him. Politically, Lincoln defended himself by confronting his adversaries with each other through a carefully planned political patronage and appealing to the American people with his oratory ability. His Gettysburg speech became an iconic defense of the principles of patriotism, republicanism, equal rights, freedom and democracy.